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Phase I/II clinical trial of a Wilms' tumor 1-targeted dendritic cell vaccination-based immunotherapy in patients with advanced cancer.
Okt. 2018 | Zhang, Wen; Lu, Xu; Cui, Peilin; Piao, Chunmei; Xiao, Man; Liu, Xuesong; Wang, Yue; Wu, Xuan; Liu, Jingwei; Yang, Lin
Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapies have been created for a broad expanse of cancers, and DC vaccines prepared with Wilms' tumor protein 1 (WT1) peptides have shown great therapeutic efficacy in these diseases. In this paper, we report the results of a phase I/II study of a DC-based vaccination for advanced breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers, and we offer evidence that patients can be effectively vaccinated with autologous DCs pulsed with WT1 peptide. There were ten patients who took part in this clinical study; they were treated biweekly with a WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccination, with toxicity and clinical and immunological responses as the principal endpoints. All of the adverse events to DC vaccinations were tolerable under an adjuvant setting. The clinical response was stable disease in seven patients. Karnofsky Performance Scale scores were enhanced, and computed tomography scans revealed tumor shrinkage in three of seven patients. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)/WT1-tetramer and cytoplasmic IFN-γ assays were used to examine the induction of a WT-1-specific immune response. The immunological responses to DC vaccination were significantly correlated with fewer myeloid-derived suppressor cells (P = 0.045) in the pretreated peripheral blood. These outcomes offered initial clinical evidence that the WT1 peptide-pulsed DC vaccination is a potential treatment for advanced cancer. PMID 30306202

Hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil promoted apoptosis and enhanced thermotolerance in human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901.
Juni 2015 | Liu, Tao; Ye, Yan-Wei; Zhu, A-Li; Yang, Zhen; Fu, Yang; Wei, Chong-Qing; Liu, Qi; Zhao, Chun-Lin; Wang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xie-Fu
This study was designed to investigate the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis-promoting effect under hyperthermia and chemotherapy treatment, at cellular level. Human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 was cultivated with 5-fluorouracil at different temperatures. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were determined, and expression of Bcl-2 and HSP70 was measured at different treatments. Cell survival rates and inhibition rates in chemotherapy group, thermotherapy group, and thermo-chemotherapy group were drastically lower than the control group (P<0.05). For tumor cells in the thermo-chemotherapy group, survival rates and inhibition rates at three different temperatures were all significantly lower than those in chemotherapy group and thermotherapy group (P<0.05). 5-Fluorouracil induced apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells with a strong temperature dependence, which increased gradually with increase in temperature. At 37°C and 43°C there were significant differences between the thermotherapy group and chemotherapy group and between the thermo-chemotherapy group and thermotherapy group (P<0.01). The expression of Bcl-2 was downregulated and HSP70 was upregulated, with increase in temperature in all groups. Cell apoptosis was not significant at 46°C (P>0.05), which was probably due to thermotolerance caused by HSP70 accumulation. These results suggested that hyperthermia combined with 5-fluorouracil had a synergistic effect in promoting apoptosis and enhancing thermotolerance in gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. PMID 26064061

Autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell immunotherapy with cytokine-induced killer cells improves survival in gastric and colorectal cancer patients.
Apr. 2014 | Gao, Daiqing; Li, Changyou; Xie, Xihe; Zhao, Peng; Wei, Xiaofang; Sun, Weihong; Liu, Hsin-Chen; Alexandrou, Aris T; Jones, Jennifer; Zhao, Ronghua; Li, Jian Jian
Gastric and colorectal cancers (GC and CRC) have poor prognosis and are resistant to chemo- and/or radiotherapy. In the present study, the prophylactic effects of dendritic cell (DC) vaccination are evaluated on disease progression and clinical benefits in a group of 54 GC and CRC patients treated with DC immunotherapy combined with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells after surgery with or without chemo-radiotherapy. DCs were prepared from the mononuclear cells isolated from patients using IL-2/GM-CSF and loaded with tumor antigens; CIK cells were prepared by incubating peripheral blood lymphocytes with IL-2, IFN-γ, and CD3 antibodies. The DC/CIK therapy started 3 days after low-dose chemotherapy and was repeated 3-5 times in 2 weeks as one cycle with a total of 188.3 ± 79.8 × 10(6) DCs and 58.8 ± 22.3 × 10(8) CIK cells. Cytokine levels in patients' sera before and after treatments were measured and the follow-up was conducted for 98 months to determine disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The results demonstrate that all cytokines tested were elevated with significantly higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-12 in both GC and CRC cohorts of DC/CIK treated patients. By Cox regression analysis, DC/CIK therapy reduced the risk of post-operative disease progression (p<0.01) with an increased OS (<0.01). These results demonstrate that in addition to chemo- and/or radiotherapy, DC/CIK immunotherapy is a potential effective approach in the control of tumor growth for post-operative GC and CRC patients. PMID 24699863

Synergistic effect of hyperthermia and neferine on reverse multidrug resistance in adriamycin-resistant SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells.
Aug. 2011 | Huang, Chenghui; Li, Yaping; Cao, Peiguo; Xie, Zhaoxia; Qin, Zhiqiang
Multidrug resistance (MDR) plays a major obstacle to successful gastric cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MDR reversal effect and mechanisms of hyperthermia in combination with neferine (Nef) in adriamycin (ADM) resistant human SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells. The MDR cells were heated at 42°C and 45°C for 30 min alone or combined with 10 μg/mL Nef. The cytotoxic effect of ADM was evaluated by MTT assay. Cellular plasma membrane lipid fluidity was detected by fluorescence polarization technique. Intracellular accumulation of ADM was monitored with high performance liquid chromatography. Mdr-1 mRNA, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), γH2AX expression and γH2AX foci formation were determined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemical staining respectively. It was found that different heating methods induced different cytotoxic effects. Water submerged hyperthermia had the strongest cytotoxicity of ADM and Nef combined with hyperthermia had a synergistic cytotoxicity of ADM in the MDR cells. The water submerged hyperthermia increased the cell membrane fluidity. Both water submerged hyperthermia and Nef increased the intracellular accumulation of ADM. The water submerged hyperthermia and Nef down-regulated the expression of mdr-1 mRNA and P-gp. The water submerged hyperthermia could damage DNA and increase the γH2AX expression of SGC7901/ADM cells. The higher temperature was, the worse effect was. Our results show that combined treatment of hyperthermia with Nef can synergistically reverse MDR in human SGC7901/ADM gastric cancer cells. PMID 21823010

Antitumor efficacy of viral therapy using genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus [NDV(F3aa)-GFP] for peritoneally disseminated gastric cancer.
Mai 2010 | Song, Kyo Young; Wong, Joyce; Gonzalez, Lorena; Sheng, Gang; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Fong, Yuman
Peritoneal dissemination is a common and fatal clinical manifestation of gastric cancer with few effective therapies available. Natural Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been shown to be an effective oncolytic agent, and recent advances now allow genetic manipulation of this virus to improve cancer killing and safety. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a genetically engineered NDV in the treatment of peritoneally disseminated gastric carcinoma. NDV mutant virus containing a modified F cleavage site and insertion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), NDV(F3aa)-GFP, was tested in vitro against human gastric cancer cells by standard cytotoxicity at different multiplicities of infection. To test NDV(F3aa)-GFP in vivo in a peritoneal carcinomatosis gastric tumor model, MKN-74 human gastric cancer cells were injected intraperitoneally (IP) in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Mice were treated with NDV(F3aa)-GFP either once or multiple times after tumor challenge. Effective killing of MKN-74 cells by NDV(F3aa)-GFP was found in vitro. This cancer killing was dose-related and correlated with viral replication. GFP expression was a good marker of infection. The virus was also effective as an antitumor therapy in a peritoneal cancer model that simulates clinical disease. Half the animals treated with virus had no evidence of disease. Genetically engineered NDV [NDV(F3aa)-GFP] administered IP is an effective antitumor therapy against peritoneal carcinomatosis from human gastric cancer in a xenograft model, without significant toxicity. These data provide further rationale for clinical trials involving NDV for peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric cancer. PMID 20393691

Regional hyperthermia of the abdomen in conjunction with chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis: evaluation of two annular-phased-array applicators.
Aug. 2008 | Cho, C H; Wust, P; Hildebrandt, B; Issels, R D; Sehouli, J; Kerner, T; Deja, M; Budach, V; Gellermann, J
Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a stage of gynecological and gastrointestinal malignancies with poor prognosis. Options for enhancing the effect of standard chemotherapy, such as aggressive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy, have limitations. In this phase I/II study, we evaluated regional hyperthermia of the pelvis and abdomen using the annular-phased-array technique as an adjunct to chemotherapy. PMID 18608591

Dendritic cells reconstituted with a human heparanase gene induce potent cytotoxic T-cell responses against gastric tumor cells in vitro.
Sep. 2007 | Cai, Yong-Guo; Fang, Dian-Chun; Chen, Ling; Tang, Xu-Dong; Chen, Ting; Yu, Song-Tao; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Xiong, Zheng; Wang, Dong-Xu; Yang, Shi-Ming
Dendritic cell-based tumor vaccination is a promising approach in the treatment of cancer. Strategies to modify dendritic cells (DCs) with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) can elicit specific immune responses against tumors. Heparanase is overexpressed in gastric cancer, especially in invasive and metastatic cells, but is downregulated in differential normal tissue. Therefore, heparanase is a potential target in immunotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer who are not candidates for surgery. The present paper was designed to investigate the immune response of a heparanase gene-modified DC-based vaccine against gastric cancer cell lines in vitro. PMID 17717429

Quick generation of fully mature dendritic cells from monocytes with OK432, low-dose prostanoid, and interferon-alpha as potent immune enhancers.
Dez. 2005 | Sakakibara, Mitsuru; Kanto, Tatsuya; Inoue, Michiyo; Kaimori, Aki; Yakushijin, Takayuki; Miyatake, Hideki; Itose, Ichiyo; Miyazaki, Masanori; Kuzushita, Noriyoshi; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Takehara, Tetsuo; Kasahara, Akinori; Hayashi, Norio
Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the promising tools for enhancing antigen-specific immune responses in clinical settings. Many studies have been performed thus far to verify the efficacy of the DC vaccine in cancer patients; however, the responses have not always been satisfactory, partly because of DC incompetence. To obtain DCs potentially applicable for vaccination of cancer patients, our group sought to establish the strategy of DC generation mainly by modulating culture periods and maturation stimuli. Novel mature DCs that can be generated from monocytes within 3 days by using a combination of OK432 (Streptococcus pyogenes preparation), low-dose prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and interferon-alpha (OPA-DCs) were developed. They strongly express CD83, CD86, and CCR7 and have potent ability to migrate to CCL21. In addition, they were able to activate natural killer and T helper 1 (TH1) cells and to induce peptide-antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes more significantly than monocyte-derived DCs stimulated with a conventional cytokine cocktail of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and PGE2 (monocyte-conditioned medium [MCM]-mimic DCs). The profound ability of OPA-DCs to stimulate these effectors is attributable to their higher expression of IL-12p70, IL-23, and IL-27 than MCM-mimic DCs, which was supported by the findings that the neutralization of IL-12p70 and IL-23 reduced the TH1 priming ability of OPA-DCs. Even when from advanced gastric or colonic cancer patients, OPA-DCs displayed abilities of migration and TH1 induction comparable to those from healthy subjects. Therefore, OPA-DCs may serve as a feasible vaccine with the potential to enhance TH1-dominant and cytolytic immune responses against cancers. PMID 16365602

Dendritic cells as vectors for immunotherapy of tumor and its application for gastric cancer therapy.
Nov. 2005 | Wu, Yugang; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Yanyun
Dendritic cells (DCs) are recognized as the most potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) with the ability to stimulate naive resting T cells and initiate primary immune responses. DCs are poised to capture antigen (Ag), migrate to draining lymphoid organs, and, after a process of maturation, select Ag-specific lymphocytes to which they present the processed Ag, thereby inducing immune responses. Numerous studies indicated that immunotherapies utilizing DC-presenting tumor-associated antigens can safely be administered to cancer patients and induce significant immunologic and clinical responses. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that DCs are related to clinical stage, invasion, metastasis and prognosis of gastric cancer. DC-based tumor vaccines become a new effective immunoadjuvant therapy for gastric cancer. PMID 16285894

Effects of PSK on T and dendritic cells differentiation in gastric or colorectal cancer patients.
Apr. 2005 | Kanazawa, Masashi; Yoshihara, Kazue; Abe, Hiroyuki; Iwadate, Manabu; Watanabe, Kumiko; Suzuki, Satoshi; Endoh, Yoshiyuki; Takita, Ken-Ichi; Sekikawa, Kouji; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Ogata, Takashi; Ohto, Hitoshi
Vaccine therapy targeting tumor antigens recognized by cytotoxic T cells (CTL) has been tried extensively. However, in a cancer-bearing state, the Th1/Th2 balance shifts to Th2 dominance, and this has been the obstacle to vaccine therapy to induce the CTL. DC1/DC2 subsets have also been reported to control the differentiation of Th subsets. The key to tumor immunotherapy is how to activate the DC1-Th1 lineage. PMID 15816609

[Effect of whole-body artificial hyperthermia on the immunity function in cancer patients].
Juli 1984 | Dzhaginian, A I; Balliuzek, F V
The changes in immunologic indexes were studied in 90 cancer patients treated with artificial whole body hyperthermia and hyperglycemia. The changes of the indexes under study showed a double-phase curve after a hyperthermic session--the phase of "heat shock aftermath" involving a short-term decline in certain immunologic indexes was followed by a general improvement of immunologic vigor of cancer patients. Different components of cancer patient immunologic system reacted differently to whole body hyperthermia. PMID 6730415