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Vaccine immunotherapy in lung cancer: Clinical experience and future directions.
Aug. 2015 | Freeman-Keller, Morganna; Goldman, Jamie; Gray, Jhanelle
Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, with SEER data showing lung cancer accounting for 29% of all male-related cancer mortality and 26% of all female-related mortality. Patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have localized disease both have 5-year survival rates of 52.2%, whereas patients with metastatic disease have 5-year survival rates of only 3.7%. Traditional anti-cancer therapies (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) have limited effectiveness in curbing progression. However, advances in immunology and molecular biology in the past two decades have resulted in improved prognosis for those with SCLC and NSCLC, although novel therapies are still needed to make significant improvements in median overall and progression-free survival rates. Notable progress on the importance of tumor immunology has included work on immune surveillance, antigenic targets, and immune checkpoints. Immunotherapies, including vaccines, which can induce antitumor responses by harnessing the power of the immune system, may help to fill this void, and the cancer vaccine continues to be studied as adjunctive therapy. Here, we review recently reported results from clinical trials as well as the possible future roles of vaccine therapy in the treatment of SCLC and NSCLC patients. PMID 25989231

Immunotherapy prospects in the treatment of lung cancer and mesothelioma.
März 2015 | Aerts, Joachim G; Lievense, Lysanne A; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Hegmans, Joost P
A very recent finding is the role of immune activation in cancer. The assumption that stimulating the patient's immune system to attack tumors is a valuable treatment option in malignant diseases has gained more acceptance. However the high immunosuppressive effects caused by the tumor limits this beneficial effect. There is a delicate balance between immunoactivation and immunosuppression in a patient. Especially in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the role of immunosuppressive cells hampering immune activation is high. But also in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and mesothelioma immunosuppressive activity is high. This is suggested to be related to the type of tumor, advanced stage of the disease, and the tumor load. In this review, we provide an overview of the progress and challenges in the immunotherapeutic approaches in lung cancer. We conclude with the concept that immunotherapy in thoracic malignancies must be tailored made to the balance of the immune system. PMID 25806279

Immunotherapy in lung cancer.
März 2015 | Massarelli, Erminia; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Welsh, James; Tang, Chad; Tsao, Anne S
Survival rates for metastatic lung cancer including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) are poor with 5-year survival of less than 5%. The use of molecular targeted therapies has improved median overall survival (OS) in a limited group of NSCLC patients whose tumors harbor specific genetic alterations. However for a large group of NSCLC and SCLC molecular alterations are not available to lead to direct targeted therapies. Recent favorable results of newer trials of therapeutic vaccines and checkpoint inhibitors have proven against the common belief that lung cancer is nonimmunogenic. In particular, the checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway have shown durable clinical responses with manageable toxicity. Several phase II and III clinical trials testing the association of different schedule of chemotherapy and immunotherapy or immunotherapy alone are ongoing in lung cancer and important results are expected in the near future. However, more studies are needed to understand the optimal combination of immunotherapeutic agents with chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the treatment of NSCLC and SCLC. PMID 25806281

Therapeutic regulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and immune response to cancer vaccine in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer.
Apr. 2013 | Iclozan, Cristina; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto; Chen, Dung-Tsa; Gabrilovich, Dmitry
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one of the major factors limiting the efficacy of immune therapy. In a clinical trial of patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC), we tested the possibility that targeting MDSC can improve the induction of immune responses by a cancer vaccine. Forty-one patients with extensive stage SCLC were randomized into three arms: arm A--control, arm B--vaccination with dendritic cells transduced with wild-type p53, and arm C--vaccination in combination with MDSC targeted therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA). Interim results of the ongoing clinical trial are presented. Pre-treatment levels of MDSC populations in patients from all three arms were similar. Vaccine alone did not affect the proportion of MDSC, whereas in patients treated with ATRA, the MDSC decreased more than twofold (p = 0.02). Before the start of treatment, no patients had detectable p53-specific responses in IFN-γ ELISPOT. Sequential measurements did not show positive p53 responses in any of the 14 patients from arm A. After immunization, only 3 out of 15 patients (20 %) from arm B developed a p53-specific response (p = 0.22). In contrast, in arm C, 5 out of 12 patients (41.7 %) had detectable p53 responses (p = 0.012). The proportion of granzyme B-positive CD8(+) T cells was increased only in patients from arm C but not in arm B. Depletion of MDSC substantially improved the immune response to vaccination, suggesting that this approach can be used to enhance the effect of immune interventions in cancer. PMID 23589106

INGN-225: a dendritic cell-based p53 vaccine (Ad.p53-DC) in small cell lung cancer: observed association between immune response and enhanced chemotherapy effect.
Mai 2010 | Chiappori, Alberto A; Soliman, Hatem; Janssen, William E; Antonia, Scott J; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I
Novel approaches are needed for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), as response after relapse is poor with standard therapies. p53 gene mutations often occur, resulting in tumoral protein overexpression and allowing for their recognition by p53-specific cytotoxic T cells. PMID 20420527

Combination of p53 cancer vaccine with chemotherapy in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer.
Feb. 2006 | Antonia, Scott J; Mirza, Noweeda; Fricke, Ingo; Chiappori, Alberto; Thompson, Patricia; Williams, Nicholas; Bepler, Gerold; Simon, George; Janssen, William; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Menander, Kerstin; Chada, Sunil; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I
The initial goal of this study was to test the immunologic and clinical effects of a new cancer vaccine consisting of dendritic cells (DC) transduced with the full-length wild-type p53 gene delivered via an adenoviral vector in patients with extensive stage small cell lung cancer. PMID 16467102